HTLV 1&2 Antibodies Blood Test
This test looks for antibodies which the body develops in response to infection with the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV). HTLV infects white blood cells which are important to the body’s immune system. HTLV infection can be responsible for the development of a number of conditions including Leukemia, Lymphoma, and nervous system disorders. The HTLV 1&2 Abs test detects and differentiates both type 1 and type 2 HTLV infections.
An estimated 15-20 million people worldwide suffer from HTLV infections. HTLV is typically spread through sexual contact and exposure to infected blood, especially through intravenous drug use. Infected mothers can spread the infection to their infants during pregnancy or breast feeding. After infection, HTLV will remain in the body for life. Some people will develop HTLV related illnesses months or years after their initial exposure. Most HTLV infections show no symptoms. An infected person can spread the virus to others even if they are asymptomatic.
Risk factors for HTLV infection include:
- Having multiple sexual partners
- Being an IV drug user
- Having a history of blood transfusions
- Living in or having a sexual partner from parts of the world where HTLV is prevalent such as Southwestern Japan, parts of Africa, the Caribbean, and the Southeastern U.S.
HTLV testing is typically ordered to help identify or rule out HTLV as the cause of conditions such as Leukemia, Lymphoma, or nervous system disorders. It can also be ordered by people who are concerned they have had an exposure to HTLV especially if they have been with someone who has also tested positive for HTLV antibodies.. Due to the common lack of symptoms, testing is recommended for anyone who engages in high risk activities.
Turnaround time for the HTLV 1&2 Antibodies test is typically 3-5 business days.
Lab LC Test Code: 163246
Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) Test
This test measures levels of Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) in the blood. HE4 is a protein which is produced by Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer is the most common type of Ovarian Cancer accounting for about 90% of cases. Many, but not all, women with ovarian cancer will show elevated levels of HE4. HE4 is most useful as a tumor marker and can be used in some cases to monitor how well a person is responding to treatment. The HE4 test is not recommended as a screening for cancer since other healthy types of cells also produce HE4 and the presence of HE4 is not a clear indicator that a person has ovarian cancer.
An HE4 test is typically ordered after a person has been diagnosed with ovarian cancer to establish a baseline level. Subsequent testing can then be used to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. HE4 is often ordered along with a CA 125 test.
Turnaround for this test is typically 2-4 business days.
Lab LC Test Code: 081700
Natural Killer Cell and Activated T-Cell Test
This test provides several measurements related to the immune system including Natural Killer Cells (NK). Natural Killer Cells (NK Cells) are a type of lymphocyte, or white blood cell, which play an important role in the body’s immune system. NK cells help to kill tumor cells or cells infected with a virus. NK cells are identified and differentiated from other types of immune cells by certain antigens called CD proteins. NK cells are CD56 positive and CD3 negative. The measurements in this test can help assess the level of NK cells as well as their state of activation. Results for this test should be interpreted by a person’s doctor.
This test includes:
- Percentage CD3+
- Absolute CD3+
- Percentage CD3+CD25+ (IL-2 Receptor)
- Absolute CD3+CD25+
- Percentage CD3-CD56+ (NK)
- Complete Blood Count (CBC)
This test can be useful in diagnosing or monitoring treatment to conditions such as leukemia, viral hepatitis, and HIV.
Turnaround for this test is typically 2-4 business days.
Lab LC Test Code: 502500
Serotonin Level Blood Test
This test measures levels of Serotonin in the blood. Serotonin is a chemical which is mostly found in the platelets in the blood. It serves a number of functions in the body including transmitting impulses between nerve cells, regulating the sleep cycle, constricting blood vessels and affecting a person’s mood. Higher than normal levels of Serotonin are often a sign that a person is suffering from Carcinoid Tumors. Carcinoid tumors typically form in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs and can produce excess serotonin. Symptoms of these tumors can include flushing in the face, diarrhea, rapid heart rate and wheezing or difficulty breathing.
A Serotonin blood test is typically ordered when a person has symptoms associated with Carcinoid Tumors. Elevated levels of Serotonin by themselves are not enough to diagnose if a person has the tumors or not. Test results will need to be followed up by more extensive testing as determined by a person’s doctor. It is important to note that not all Carcinoid tumors will cause high Serotonin levels.
Turnaround for this test is typically 3-4 business days.
Lab LC Test Code: 120204
Metanephrines Blood Test
This test measures levels of Metanephrines in the blood. Metanephrines, which include Metanephrine and Normetanephrine, are the metabolites of epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are part of a group of hormones called Catecholamines which are normally produced when a person is under physical or emotional stress. Once the stress has passed the Catecholamines are normally metabolized and removed from the body through the urine in a short period of time. Levels of Catecholamines and their metabolites such as Metanephrines are normally low but they can be elevated by hormone producing tumors known as Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas. While these types of tumors are typically benign, the excess hormones they produce can cause hypertension, severe headaches, anxiety, sweating, nausea, rapid heartbeat and tingling in the hands and feet. If left untreated, they can result in kidney damage, heart disease and an increased risk of heart attack or stroke. Testing for Metanephrines is one of the most common ways to screen for the tumors.
This test is typically ordered when a person is experiencing unusual periods of hypertension or other symptoms common of excess Catecholamine production to help determine if a tumor is the cause of their condition. It can also be done after a tumor has been removed to monitor recovery. For people experiencing hypertension, the best time to have their blood drawn is during or immediately after an episode. Since a number of factors can cause falsely elevated Metanephrine levels and because they are eliminated from the body quickly, a blood test may not always yield accurate results. For this reason, a 24 Hour Urine Metanephrines test is often done along with the blood test or as a follow up. A Catecholamines test is often done along with a Metanephrines test or as a follow up to unusual results.
Turnaround for this test is typically 5-7 business days.
Lab LC Test Code: 121806